Miftah Huda Rabbani dan Nur Millati Azizah
A. Internal condition
Islamic state in the Era of Abu Bakar was categorized as a small state on that time, furthermore, if it is compared with the area and power of Romawi and Persia. Even, internal condition in the beginning of Abu Bakar period was chaos. There are some reasons:
1. False Prophet
After Prophet Muhammad died, there were four false Prophet. Both of them were killed; Asmad and Thulaihah, and the others were entering Islam.
2. Rejecting Zakat Movement
Thulaihah, one of the false prophets, commanded his brother to revival Badui ethnic in north Madinah. Big troop was prepared, but they would not threat Islam and defend Thulaihah, they just want to reject zakat to tha baitul mal.
3. Rejecting Faith Movement
In the era of Prophet Muhammad, there were some ethnic came to Madinah, declared their faith, and hoped the guidance. But Madinah has not enough people to do that. Then, after Prophet Muhammad died, they, who didn’t have good faith of Islam and didn’t know the spirit of Islam, came back to their faith before and challenge Islamic government.
Those chaos conditions were handed in the first year of Abu Bakar government. On that time government was really focus on solving those problems, although some troops were delegated to threat Syiria. Abu bakar consisted to do so although many people rejected this policy because Abu Bakar thought it was a command by Prophet Muhammad, so it has to be done.
B. External Condition
Outside Arabia, there are two big states with big power, both are:
Persia was a very powerful state. It controlled a very big road to the east. It has a very good military, arms, management and also economy.
Persia was the aggressive country in intervening Islamic area and helping Islamic rebellion actively. Then, in Mesopotamia where the power of Persia was very big, there was an attack which was controlled by Persia. The actor was Sajah, one of false Prophet. She did an expedition to rebel Madinah, the headquarter of Islam, and came back after entering Yamamah in central Arabia. It was impossible that a woman who delegated an unimportant nomadic tribe has a brave to rebel until the centre of Islamic power. Persia also influenced in Yaman, one of the Islamic province of Islam. And also in Bahrain rebellion, Persia was sending its troop to help Bahrain rebellion in threatening Islam.
Romawi was a powerful state as well as Persia. Romawi was controlling the north area. It also has a very well management, economy, politics, and military.
Before Prophet Muhammad died, Syiria was the palce where there was small quarrel between Muslim and Busro. Here also was a military exercised so Propthet Muhammad prepared troops to attack Syiria. Unfortunately he died, so the troops were pended until the era of Abu Bakar Ash-shidiq. And in the era of Abu Bakar, Romawi was a state which was behind Thulaihah, the rebellion in the north area. The area where there was a rebellion is abutting with the area under Romawi kingdom. Romawi, as the modern country, was very well in controlling movement behind. Neither Romawi nor Persia was trying to make a chaos in Islamic area. Both thought that Islamic country, although a small country, Islamic country has a militant troop and citizens. This is a threat for Romawi and Persia.
C. The diplomacy toward Persia and Romawi
It was very clear that Persia and Romawi were coming against Islamic state by supporting rebellion of Islam. After solving the rebellion inside the country, Abu Bakar was focusing the attention toward both neighbor countries. Abu Balar thought that both countries would like make a bigger chaos that what have been solved. In order to strengthening and fortifying the border, Abu bakar with its small power troop attacked both countries bravely. Although, on the other side, Abu Bakar realized the risk in attacking both countries, the less power of its troop, and the difficulties, Abu Bakar was brave to prepare the troop and arm, then attack.
Muthanna expedition is the expedition which was impinged with Persia. In solving the problem with Rebellion in Bahrain, Muthanna bin Harist has given a lot of help. Then, he went to the north until Persian Gulf. It was because Persia has given troop to Bani Bakar during the rebellion. So, the expedition until Persian Gulf is the way to clean that area from the rebellion and also its ally, Persia. In this area, all nomadic tribes were sick except Muthanna because of the oppression by Persia. Then, Muthanna collected 8000 troops, but it was still small troops compared with Persian tropps.
Because of that fact, Abu Bakar asked for Khalid bin Walid to help Muthanna. The first quarrel between Muslim and Persia was located in Hafir, near the border of Persia. Persia was losed. This quarrel was called Dhat al-salasil, means chain war. In this war, the Persian troops were bounded their self by chain together.
Not giving the chance for enemy, Khalid was losing them at the quarrel in Ullais and step forward in the west side of Efrat River then go to Hirah, the headquarter of Persia. Hirah was surrounded, and the government of Persia was giving up soon and conducting the treaty of government changing.
An-bar and ‘Ain al-Tamr Qonquest
From Hirah, Khalid forward to An-Bar. Here, he has succeeded in controlling. And then he came to ‘Ain al-Tamr, palce where Sajah located. It was very important palce because as long as Sjah and her followers still alive, the security of Islam cannot be established well. The quarrel in ‘Ain al-Tamr also was won by Muslim, and Khalid life here in several time.
North Border Expedition
As what is written above, the north border expedition has been prepared since the era of Prophet Muhammad and was lead by Usamah. After the expedition by Usamah, Abu Bakar asked for Khalid bin Said to do an expedition in the north border or Syiria. The goal is just for defending not attacking because the power of Romawi troops was too big. It was just a self defending campaign. But after the incident of Badui, Abu Bakar asked for the troops to attack Romawi.
There is a confused about the year of Syiria war. But, it was about 13 H. Muslim troops were divided into four divisions. The instruction also was given to Khalid bin Walid, who still in ‘Ain al-Tamr to help Khalid bin Said. So the total troops are 400.000 but the Romawi troops were 240.000. Both were quarreling in Ajnadain. There were 3000 troops died but Islam still won the war. It was happen in Jumadil Awwal, 28th 13 H. Started from here, Heraclius went to Antaqiyah, and forward to Damaskus and surrounding that place. But it was happen in the era of Umar Bin Khattab. The report of winning was happen in the time of Abu Bakar facing his dead.