Janitra Yaneswari Tanjungputri
Nur Aeni Musyafak
Selviawan Tri Wijayanto
Islamic diplomacy has been sampled years before the western make the theorem about the diplomatic itself. In the era Muhammad to the era after him, Khulafa’urasyidin, caliphs, and after that. But actually, the concept of Islamic diplomatic relation rare to reviewed and take the advantage from the earlier. Therefore here in this paper assignment the groups will explore the Islamic diplomacy in the era of Omar bin Khattab. From his historical background. Omar Bin Khattab was born in the year 513 AD from a family of Quraish tribe. His father named Nufail bin Abdul Uzza Al Quraysh and the tribe of his ancestor. His mother was named Hantamah bint Hashim Bin Abdallah Bin Mughirah. Degan related genealogy Prophet Muhammad in the eighth generation of Fahr. While young, Omar Bin Khattab is known as a gallant young man, sturdy and brave. It was obtained from the tribe and family education. His father was not among those who are rich, but has strong leadership, which is known as a wise leader. Although, the character of the family very hard and firm . Hardness and toughness is a capital for him to gain recognition from others in the community of Quraish of Mecca.
Omar Bin Khattab converted to Islam at the age of 27 years. The story of Omar Bin Khattab Islam began from a desire to kill the Prophet Muhammad is regarded as divisive and founder of Arabs among them. The war is not like when the Arab tribes became fragmented because of propaganda done by Prophet Muhammad. Therefore, he continued to keep trying to prevent anyone who wants to convert to Islam, not even hesitate to kill him. His hard character appears to be forging a legacy of education of parents and their tribe of ancestor. Because of interference and torture the people of Quraish infidels then increasingly become so, and Omar Bin Khattab and Omar bin Hisham known as Abu Jahl, which is the two community leaders of the Quraysh who was greatly feared, the Prophet always prayed to God that one of them received guidance from God and jointly uphold the teachings of Islam the religion of Islam. The application was granted by the Prophet of Allah SWT, and Omar Bin Khattab eventually converted to Islam. After he was with the Islam his tough talk that had been shown to the Muslim community began to weaken and even he was always friendly against fellow Muslims. This was done to defend Muslims from harassment infidels and the enemies of other Muslims. After he declared himself a follower of Prophet Muhammad, first attempt to do is to disseminate information to residents Mecca.
وَأَمَّا انْعِقَادُ الْإِمَامَةِ بِعَهْدِ مَنْ قَبْلَهُ فَهُوَ مِمَّا انْعَقَدَ الْإِجْمَاعُ عَلَى جَوَازِهِ وَوَقَعَ الِاتِّفَاقُ عَلَى صِحَّتِهِ لِأَمْرَيْنِ عَمِلَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ بِهِمَا وَلَمْ يَتَنَاكَرُوهُمَا أَحَدُهُمَا : أَنَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ عَهِدَ بِهَا إلَى عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ فَأَثْبَتَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ إمَامَتَهُ بِعَهْدِهِ . وَالثَّانِي : أَنَّ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ عَهِدَ بِهَا إلَى أَهْلِ الشُّورَى فَقَبِلَتْ الْجَمَاعَةُ دُخُولَهُمْ فِيهَا وَهُمْ أَعْيَانُ الْعَصْرِ اعْتِقَادًا لِصِحَّةِ الْعَهْدِ بِهَا وَخَرَجَ بَاقِي الصَّحَابَةِ مِنْهَا
In contrast to the process of appointment of Abu Bakr as the Caliph. Abu Bakr was elected democratically through a process of debate that is long enough, until finally he was elected as the legitimate caliph. While Omar Bin Khattab appointed through the appointment of the Caliph Abu Bakr conducted after obtaining approval from the big companions. This was done in order to avoid dissension Caliphs politics among Muslims themselves. He feared that the appointment was done through the electoral process as in his time, then the situation will become cloudy because of the possibility that there are a lot of interest there is among those who made the state becomes unstable, so that the development and implementation of Islam will be hampered. When Abu Bakr became ill in the summer of 634 AD and for 15 days did not go away, he called his great friend and expressed desires. He wanted before he died, any one replaced his position. For that, he tried to collect a mass in front of his house and made a speech about the future replacement candidate. He said:
“Are you going to accept the person I nominated as a replacement for my future? I swear to do my best in deciding this issue. Because of that I saw that Omar Bin Khattab was the best person to replace me. Listen to me and follow my wishes”. Then the assembled masses at home said, “We have heard the Caliph and we all will obey the lord”.
After that, Abu bakar called Usman bin Affan kerumahnya to hear opinions on the proposals that the caliph would appoint Umar bin Khattab became his successor. After hearing the caliph, Usman could not agree with the opinion of the appointment of the Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab as his successor later. Because according to Usman bin Affan, Umar was a very strict and prudent. Soon after the screening opinion, the Caliph Abu Bakr died.With the death of Caliph Abu Bakr, the government held by the new caliph Omar Bin Khattab. This power shift occurred because of Umar Bin Khattab has been unanimously approved by the big companions and other Muslims, so that when Abu Bakr died leadership that they automatically fall into the hands of the Caliph Umar Bin Khattab.
In the reign of Omar ibn al-Khattab r.a. Islam developed to able to unite the countries in three continents under Islamic caliphate, the prosperity enjoyed by people of any country, different with the reign of the Roman empire and Persian empire before Islam together. At the time of the Roman empire and Persia prosperity only enjoyed royal officials, the people suffer, but when the caliphate Omar r.a. the rights of the people who originally returned all owned officials of the Roman empire and Persia. Although Islam is able to unify the three continents, freedom of religion really enjoyed by the people, so that the Christian religion and Jews live side by side with the Muslim community, and their rights protected by the government of Caliph Omar ra Good Governance-style government of Omar ibn al-Khattab ra capable of carrying community became a prosperous society spiritual and physical, this is due some things that applied by the Caliph. Therefore the groups will explore more about his good government model. And in Omar caliph there are the new government model such established of two advisory councils, namely:
1. Advisory Board General Assembly, which invited when the State faces
2. Special Advisory Board, which consists of special people who no doubt his integrity to be invited to discuss the issues routine and important. Even the problem of hiring and firing employees other civil taken to a special council for vote’s ability (fit and proper test)\
3. Baitul Ma’al (State Treasury) in charge set out in the money, so that state finances can be controlled.
4. Council of the Armed Forces, in charge of writing the names of the soldiers and set their salaries.
In both these bodies of non-Muslims are also invited to take part in consultation. The Persian leaders are often consulted about government in Iraq / Mesopotamia, Egyptian leaders also consulted on government in Egypt, even a religious Coptic sit as a representative of Egypt. Appointments of a governor do after listening to local residents advices through the election by local people (the election). Even a number of important positions in the province, as an example of tax officials to Kufa, boil and elected by the people of Syria, the Caliph only endorsed elections. Caliph always reminded, that the people must effectively participate and in government, even a poor old woman can openly asked the Caliph of the various activities and even explain in a transparent manner. Embedded real democracy to the people and the employees administrative (civil). Ultimate to civil servants by the caliph that they paid to serve the community well, and if their actions received complaints from the people, the Deputy will provide the kind of sanctions. Control / supervision of the Deputy does not horn of the governor is the success and efficiency of government Omar bin Khattab r.a. In a letter of appointment of a governor explained detailed rights and obligations. The letter was read out even before the general public, so that the public understands clearly the terms of appointment of provincial authorities and can request that the governor responsibility concerned if the governor misused his power. One time deputies spoke in front of the governor and said: “Remember, I you are not up to govern the people, but that you serve them, you must be an example with a good action so that people can imitate you “. His command was accord to Al-Qur’an command toward leaders in the world. At the time of his appointment the governor made a statement willing to live simply, eat simple and ready to receive complaints from people all the time.
Thus the development of Islam that occurred in the reign of the Caliph Omar Bin Khattab. Many services it provides to advance the welfare of the people of Islamic clan, so that his leadership time in the history of Islam known as the period of the most secure, and prosperous. It comes from his personal characteristics and broad community support for the efforts he did. The advantage from Omar are the diplomatic services and his way of govern by delegating the trust man in every region under his reign.
اُدْعُ إِلَى سَبِيْلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُمْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَبِيْلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِيْنَ
(EXPANSION TO PERSIA)
Expansion of Qadisiyah was happened in 14th Hijriyah / 635 C. Umar ibn Al khathab wanted to expand Persia because it was one of a great kingdom at the time. So, Umar has had mission to spread Islam (da’wah) in that territory. Before the war of Qadiyah, Umar ibn Khathab, through his letter to Sa’ad ibn Abi Waqqash, asked him to send delegations to Persia to open relations between Persia and Islam. In that letter, Umar asked Sa’ad to collect the peoples who were expert in negotiation and ijtihad. They were:
1. Nu’man ibn Muqarrin Al-Muzani
2. Busr ibn Abu Ruhm Al-Juhri
3. Hamlah ibn Juwiyah Al Kanani
4. Hanzhalah ibn Rabi’ Al Tamimi
5. Furat ibn Hayan Al Ajabi
6. Adiy ibn Suhail
7. Mughirah ibn Zurarah ibn Nabasyi ibn Habib
8. Atharid ibn Hajib At Tamimi
Umar and Sa’ad sent 14 negotiatior to Persia. They were chosen to Persia for open relations with Islam and also wanted to invite Persia to entered Islamic religion (da’wah). The negotiators, brought message about 3 options in their negotiation, they are:
2. Pay the tax (Jizyah)
Persia rejected those options and declared war. After that, Persia prepared their troops for their war against Islam. The Persian troops consist of more than 120.000 personnel and Islam has had about 39.000 personnel.
Qaddisiyah war was the biggest war which never happened before. Each of the Persian and Islam still survived and keep on their struggle. One reason why Persian was consistent to do war with Islam is to maintain their kingdom still existed in the world. If they got failed, they will lose their kingdom. So, Rustam, as the field commander prepared their troops as many as he can and always request the additional troops to Yazdajir, the king of Persia at the time. In the beginning of war, Umar asked Sa’ad to try to negotiate again with Rustam as the field commander from Persia. Sa’ad as the field commander from Islam sent the negotiator again to negotiate and ordered the three options. But, Rustam rejected it and still in his consistency to do war against Islam.
Finally, Umar prepared their troops to face Persian. He arranged war strategy and manages their position. Umar has a policy for every single men following military training requirement and mobilized society to follow war. Almost all of society and groups joined the troops against Persian at the time. Umar gave authority to Sa’ad to choose the people who are expert in war and wise. The troops who joined in war with Sa’ad were 70 personnel, who has been followed Badar war, 319 personnel who has ben followed Bai’at Ridhwan, 300 personnel who has been followed in Mecca expansion, and 700 personnel from the son of brothers. Umar get succeeded to invite society from all level and elements. They are the leader of ethnics, wise persons, orators, poets and the peoples who have big influence in society. Umar is the first leader who use map to learn the battle field and its condition of the environment.
This war was happening in four days. Because of the Islamic troops amount was less than Persian troops, Umar played military strategy to cover their weakness. Umar asked Sa’ad to do divert attack. They tried to reduce the spirit and energy of Persian troops and they were doing such kind of threat attack to the enemy. Generally, Umar used variety of military strategy in Qadisiyah war. Islamic troops were not only using one strategy. They always used varieties of military strategy depend on the situation and condition. Firstly, they started their strategy with ‘mubarazah’, and then, they used traditional war strategy. This strategy is the whole attack and the main target is the commander of war.
Generally, Umar has purposes to spread Islam and expand Islamic territory with using soft diplomacy without any war. He has been doing negotiation to avoid war even though he includes war as one option in his negotiation. But in fact Persian has chosen war to maintain their kingdom. Actually, each option has own reason. First option is enter Islam religion. Umar want to spread Islam to Persia as one of the great kingdom as like as Romawi at the time. Second option is pay the tax (jizyah) to Islam and they did not need to be bound by the Islamic state at that time, in other words they were free with their own autonomy’s territory even though they have to pay jizyah. And the third is war. It was the chosen option that has been chosen by Persian. With those options, actually those options have main purpose to set up Persia under Islam.
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