Hariyanti Ningsih dan Supratman
Siffin War is a war between Khalifah Ali and Muawiyyah in which Muawiyyah did not confess and oppose Khalifah Ali’s government policy. Siffin is an area located between Suriyah and Iraq river bank of Euphrates. That battle almost won by Khalifah Ali, however, because of the artfulness of Amr bin ‘Ash as the Muawwiyah’s commander, he commended for his troops to put Al Qur’an on the top of spear as a symbol of peace.
When Ali’s troops saw the Qur’an on the top spear, they did not want to aggress any more, whereas, they almost win. According to Ali’s conviction, this was an enemy’s trickery. However, Ali’s effort was nothing, all his troops have no struggle spirit to against, most of them choose the peace one, even though Khalifah Ali himself disagree because he had known the characteristic of Muawwiyah, ‘Amr bin Ash et al were famous as a strategy expert and diplomacy. Finally, Khalifah Ali could not do anything and had to receive Tahkim (Arbitration) because of supported by most of his troops.
In the arbitration process, both Ali and Muawwiyah choose a judge (Hakam) who will discuss to find a problem solving. Then agree that Abu Musa Asy’ari from Khalifah Ali and Amr bin Ash from Muawwiyah. Actually, Khalifah Ali less agree to Abu Musa, because Ali knew that Abu Musa opposed his policy when Abu Musa became a governor of Kuffah, until at that time Abu Musa was resigned from his position as governor of Kuffah. Moreover, the majority of Ali’s troops choose Abu Musa as Hakam.
Both sides were not balance, Amr bin Ash was famous as a smart diplomat and Abu Musa was an old and tawadlu. In that negotiation decided that Khalifah Ali is dethroned and so does Muawwiyah is resigned from his position as a governor, then all Muslim people should consider who the leader is.
It was agree for who announce the Ali dismissal will be done by Abu Musa and the Muawwiyah deposition will be done by Amr bin Ash. However, Amr bin Ash broke the agreement after Abu Musa announced the dismissal of Khalifah Ali, and he announced exactly Muawwiyah’s elevation become the Khalifah as the changer of Khalifah Ali.
This Tahkim not only succeed in dethroning Khalifah Ali but also Khalifah Ali’s follower divided into two parties, which were a party that loyal to Khalifah Ali (Syi’atu Ali) and those who out from the line of Khalifah Ali’s follower (Khawarij) because they were disappointed and disagree toward the Thakim’s decision. The last group is a radical group, whoever disagree with them called as Kafir, by their motto “The Law Only Under God/ al-Hukmu billah)
The basis of Muawwiyah’s government which become Muawwiyah’s success was not only because of the victory of Siffins’ diplomacy and Ali’s accidentally killed, however, he has a solid rational basis for the foundation of his political building in the future. And those succeed factors are:
• The strong support from Syria citizens and Bani Umayyah’ family
• As an administrator, Muawwiyah was able to do wisely in replacing his assistants on the main position.
• Muawwiyah has more than an ability as a truly statesman, moreover, he achieve the level of hilm or the highest characteristic which owned by Mecca’s officials in an old era, in which a hilm human likes Muawwiyah can control his self and make the decisions which considering, even though there were intimidations and pressures.
How Umayyah Dynasty strengthen the power?
Under the Muawiyah, he maintain the stability through an aggression toward the rebellion such as Syi’ah, Khawarij, Ahlul Bait. It was important because Bani Umayyah’s authority did not supported by Hijaz and Iraq citizens. Muawwiyah strengthen their power in Syiria as a basis their governance, and also he replace his family as a governor to keep and maintain the stability from the pressure of Khalifah Ali’s follower.
To strengthen the power for Bani Umayyah’s authority, in that era Muawwiyah managed the social and political system in order to achieve a good progress, as follows:
In the social aspect, Bani Umayyah has opened the relations among Muslim states (Arab) and the countries subjected which is famous and advance with the culture such as Persia, Egypt, Europe etc. Those kind of things cause the emerging of cultural acculturation between Arab (Characterized as Islam) and other states tradition which over shade under the Islamic authority. Then the relations expressed a surprised new idea in the building art aspect (architecture) and science. Like what happened in the government era of Khalifah Walid Bin Abdul Malik (705-715) in which plenitude by properties and prosperous.
He is a hard worker and a capable man to hold the establishment. Therefore, he fixed the buildings, factories and the roads completed by well for the Qobilah who walked there. He built the Mosque of al-Amawi which is famous until nowadays in Damascus. Besides that, he use his country’s wealth to help the orphanages, the needy, a physical defect man such blind man, paraplegic etc.
Other effects were many of people in the subjected countries who became a Muslim. They are the new comers from the defeated nations, then called as “al mawali”. That status drawn an inferiority in the middle of Arabic Arrogance. They could not get the facility from Bani Umayyah official as was got by Arabic Moslem.
In the era of Bani Umayyah, many of Arabic Muslim people beheld their self were the noblest people from other nations (Mawali). Arabic people beheld that their self “saiyid” over non Arabic nation, seems they became a God to command. As the result, there were separated in the contexts of state rights between Arabic people and the subjected states.
At that time, many Khalifah of Bani Umayyah have the glamour life style which no differences with the Khalifah before. Nevertheless, they never forget to help a poor, a physical defect a weak people. At that era were built many reformatories to accommodate, to help those orphanages, poor and a physical defect. For those who involved in this humanity program, they got the salary from the government.
The most significant change of Bani Umayyah’s era is on the political system was on their Foreign Politics.
Foreign politics of Bani Umayyah is a political expansion which is aggrandized the authority toward the countries which have not been subjected into Daulah Bani Umayyah. Islamic territory was too large in the era of Khalifah ar-Rasyidin, but that expansion had not achieve yet the constant state line, because of there are many conflicts and disputes in the boarder area. The areas which have been ruled over Islam are still become an invasion target of Islam other parties from the backline of that fight. Moreover, the enemy from outside of Islamic area had been succeed to seize several regions of Islamic power when was happened of disputes and rebellions from Moslem countries.
Based on this situation, there were happened the battles between Bani Umayyah and neighbor states which being subjected in the era of Khulafa’ur rasyidin. Muawwiyah had dominated in the east such Kherson until the Oxus river, Afghanistan until Kabul. His naval force aggressed Byzantium’s capital, Constantinople. These expansion which done Muawwiyah continued by Halifax Abdul Malik. He sent the armies crossed Oxus river and succeed to defeated Balk, Bukhara, Khwarizmi, Fergana, Samarkand. In India, his armies dominated Baluchistan, Sind, and Punjab area until Multan.
The expansion to the West was continued in the era of Walid bin Abdul Malik. In 711 M, there was a military expedition from North Africa to South West of European continent. After al Jazair and Morocco was defeated, Tariq bin Ziyad as the Islamic troops leader crossed the strain separated between Morocco and European continent. Spain’s troops were defeated and he found a place which nowadays called as Gibraltar (Jabal Thariq).
Therefore, Spain was the next target of expansion. Cordoba as Spain capital was dominated quickly then came afterward other cities such Seville, Elvira and Toledo which became a new Spain’s capital after the defeated of Cordoba.
At that time, Islamic troops got the victory easily, because they were supported by local people who suffered for along time because of the oppression from the arbiter. In the era of Umar bin Abdul Aziz, the aggression to French done through the Piranee mountain. This aggression led by Abdurrahman ibn Abdullah al-Ghafiqi. He begun to against Bordeau and Poitiers. He begun to against Tours. However, in the aggression outside the Tours, al Qhafii was killed and his troops went backwards and returned to Spain. Besides those areas, the islands in the middle sea is dominated by Islam in the era of Bani Umayyah.
The authority of Islamic area was very large because of succeed of expansion to several areas whether in the east or west. Those areas including of Spain, North Africa, Syiria, Palestina,Arab Jazirah, Irak etc.
Therefore, the expansion which done by Muslim people in the era of Bani Umayyah is an action to defense and jihad to spread Islamic religion, especially toward the syirik believers who blocked the spreading of Islamic thought to the citizens heartstrings that had been waiting for along time.
The expansion which done by Bani Umayyah including of three main fronts, which are the areas that had been achieved and Islamic movement was stopped there in the era of Utsman bin Affan. Those three fronts are:
1. Battle front against Roman in the Small Asia. In the era of Bani Umayyah’s government, this battle in this front was extend until including of encirclement toward Constantinople and several islands in middle sea.
2. North Africa Front. This front was extend until Atlantic ocean then crossed Jabal Thoriq until Spain.
3. East Front. This front was extend and divided into two parts which were the one went into the north and the cross area of Jihun area (Amru Dariyah). And the second part went into the south including the area of Sind, Western India.
The Cause of Bani Umayyah’s Collapse
The greatness which achieved by Dynasty of Bani Umayyah can not hold back its collapse, which caused by several factors, as follows:
1. The dispute among Arabic ethnics which had been divided for along time into two groups, which are North Arabic called as Mudariyah, placed in Iraq and South Arab (Himyariyah) in the Suriah. In the era of Bani Umayyah, the competitions among ethnics was on the highest level, because the Khalifah tend to a party than others.
2. Dissatisfaction of several non Arab Islamic believers. They were the new comers from the subjected states called as “mawali”. That status was drawn as inferiority in the middle of Arabic arrogance who got the facility from Bani Umayyah’s government.
3. The changing system of Khalifah through the descent line was a new form for Arabic tradition which emphasize in seniority aspect. The arrangement was not clear and it caused an unfair competition in the scope of dynasty’s family.
4. Islamic empires in the era of Bani Umayyah have a large areas, until it was difficult to control and arrange an administration well.
5. The form background of Bani Umayyah’s sovereignty could not be separated from many political conflicts. Syi’ah and Khawarij group developed to be a strong oppositions which can threaten a wholeness authority of Bani Umayyah.
6. There was a glamour life style in the dynasty area, because the sons of Khalifah could not carry the ball of state duties when they got the authority. Besides that, many religion groups were disappointed because of the attention of Khalifah toward the development of religion was less.
7. Continued oppression especially toward Ali’s followers and Bani Hasyim in generally, until they became a strong opposition. This new power, founded by generation of al-Abbas ibn Abdul al-Muthalib and supported totally by Bani Hasyim, Syi’ah group and Mawali who discriminated by Bani Umayyah. This kind of things was the direct cause for the collapse of Bani Umayyah.
There were several diplomacy instruments which practiced by dynasty of Bani Umayyah, which were:
• Money diplomacy: because of the pressure for Byzantium empire toward Bani Umayyah and there was the rebellion of Khalifah Ali’s followers where they threaten his power, therefore, Muawwiyah pay the upeti for Roman empire in order to keep his sovereignty. It was also practiced by Abdul Malik’s era, where he paid 1000 dinar every Friday for Byzantium.
• Hard Diplomacy: is one of diplomacy instruments of Bani umayyah by using the gun.
• Soft Diplomacy: this diplomacy used in the era of Umar bin Abdul Aziz through Da’wah islamiyyah as the exchange of hard diplomacy such aggression. This kind of things caused most of Syiria and Persia’ citizens became a Muslim, several kings over his authority entered to Islam such Sind King, and decreasing of jizyah which caused an empathy from non Muslim people.
• Negotiation with Barber people in North Africa and Count Julian to conquest the Andalusia.
One of the Islamic government in the Islamic world which had a glory was Dynasty of Bani Umayyah, even though, the establishment of this dynasty have the controvert ions. The important thing is that this dynasty gave big contribution for Islamic development, especially the expansion in spreading Islamic religion
1. Syalabi.A. ‘Sejarah Kebudayaan Isla’, Pustaka Al Husna Baru. Jakarta. 2008.
2. Djamidin Taufik. ‘Tragedi Pembunuhan 3 Khalifah”. Pinus Book Publisher. Yogyakarta. 2009.