Fajriah Nur Khasanah dan Farid Sanjaya
Since human have been created by God no one of them can fulfill their need by their own and cannot hold out with their life without other. It means that each depend on other, that is why there any such kind of interactions among them. People as the unique created has complex kind of social interactions, they have been bounded by any such of regulations which is written and unwritten. This kind of regulations can become from God or interpretation of human itself.
Diplomacy is one term that used by human as tools of interactions among them which tends to relations among states. Western history has written about the practice of diplomacy, it has been done since ancient time. Term of diplomacy come from Greek words which means “fold up”. K.M. Panikkar has stated that diplomacy is the art of forwarding one’s interests in relations to other states. It means that diplomacy is one kind of tools which is used by one state to get its interests in relations with other states. Contents of diplomatic elements are about negotiation, national interest, and peaceful. Diplomacy uses in peaceful way regarding for negotiation among states. But how when diplomacy failure to achieve? Some thinker has stated that power will be used when there is no more diplomacy. So diplomacy and power cannot be separated.
This paper will not discuss about theory of diplomacy but tends to practice of diplomacy in caliph Ali bin Abi Thalib ra era. According to his governmental condition this paper try to analyze how he was implemented diplomacy in any such of interactions. First line this paper will discuss about biography of Ali bin Abi Thalib and will be continued simple describe of political condition that will slant the practice of diplomacy in his era.
Historical Background of Ali bin abi Thalib
Ali was born in Mecca, Hejaz region, Arabian Peninsula, on 13 Rajab. According to historians, Ali was born 10 years before the beginning of the prophet hood of Muhammad, about the year AD 599 or 600 (estimated). Age of the Prophet Muhammad to Ali is still disputed to this day and many histories said that they were 25 years different, and there are different 27 years, some even said they were different about 30 years old or 32 years old. He was called the original Haydar ibn Abu Talib, uncle of the Prophet Muhammad. Haydar which means lion is the hopes of Abu Talib family to have a successor who can be brave and respected figure among the Quraish of Mecca. Once you know the new-born cousin named Haydar, the Prophet called Ali who is High (degrees in Allah). Ali was born from mothers who named Fatima bint Asad, where Asad was son of Hashim, making Ali, a descendant of Hashim of the father and mother.
The birth of Ali ibn Abi Talib, give much entertainment for the Prophet SAW because he had no sons. Uzur and faqir of Abu Talib’s familly gave an opportunity for the Prophet Muhammad with his wife Khadija to take care of Ali and make him as a foster son. This is both to reward the Abu Talib who had been caring for the prophet Muhammad since small to adulthood, so little Ali had been live together with prophet Muhammad since he was a child.
When the Prophet Muhammad received the revelation, Ali was the first man who believes in revelation or second people who believe after the Prophet’s own wife Khadija. At this point Ali was about 10 years.
In adolescence after the revelation descended, Ali directly learn a lot from the Prophet Muhammad as a foster child, the opportunity to get always close to the Prophet Muhammad is ongoing until he became in-law of the Prophet. This is the evidence for some of the Sufis that there are certain lessons of spiritual issues (spirituality in English or the Salaf like to call the term ‘Ehsan’) or later known as the Prophet taught Sufism special to him but not to the students or friends of the other. Because if the science of the Shariah or religious laws that govern both the Islamic and community service all received by the Prophet must be communicated and taught to his people, while the spiritual problems can only be given to certain people with their capacity. The teaching directly from the Prophet to Ali in all aspects of both aspects of Islamic science Zahir (exterior), or sharia, and inner (interior) or Tasawwuf galvanize Ali became a young man who is very smart, brave and wise.
After migration and live in Medina, Ali married with the Prophet beloved daughter Fatimah who were many of the youth love her. The Prophet considered Ali was the most appropriate in many ways like a family nasab a family (Bani Hashim), was the first to believe the prophet Muhammad (after Khadijah), who was always studying under the Prophet and many other things.
In the election of Ali as Caliph there was a difference of opinion Caliph between the election of Abu bakar and Utsman.When the second Caliph of the previous election (the Caliph and the Caliph Abu Bakr and Utsman bin affan), although initially there were several people who were opposed, but after the candidate was elected and decided to be the Caliph, all the people accept and participate berbaiat and declared his loyalty.But it is different when the election of Ali ibn Abi Talib, just the opposite.
After the murder of Uthman ibn Affan, the gang came and allegiance Ali ibn Abi Talib as the Caliph.He was appointed through elections and open meetings.But the atmosphere at that time was chaotic, because there were few senior leaders of Islamic communities who live in Medina.So the validity of the appointment of Ali bin Abi Talib was rejected by some people including Mu’aawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan.Although it happened, the Caliph Ali is still in the Islamic government.
Pros and cons of the appointment of Ali bin Abi Talib as the Caliph because some things that people who do not like Ali was made caliph, not the most common people.However, small groups (family Umaiyyah) the family had been living during the reign of wallowing in wealth Ustman Caliph.Against Ali because they fear their wealth and enjoyment will disappearbecause justice will be run by Ali.The majority of the people, they look forward to the leadership of Ali and welcome him with open arms.He will become a refuge to escape from their sufferings.
He died at the age of 63 years for murder by Abdrrahman bin Muljam, someone who comes from among Khawarij (dissidents) when lead morning prayers (Subuh) at the Kufa mosque, on 19 Ramadan, and Ali breathed his last breath on 21 Ramadhan 40 Hijri year. Ali was buried secretly in Najaf, there are even some reports which stated that he was buried elsewhere.
After Uthman shahid, Ali appointed as khalifah no 4. At first he refused, but eventually he accepted. Imam Ahmad narrated with a saheeh chain of transmission from Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyah said: ….. While many people came up behind her and pounded on the door and immediately entered the house. They said: “He (Uthman) Have been killed, while the people should have the caliph, and we do not know the person most entitled to it unless you (Ali.)”. Ali said to them: “Do you expect me, because I prefer to be vizier (helper) for you than the Amir”. They replied: “No, by Allah, we do not know someone who is more entitled to the caliphate than thou”. Ali replied: “If you do not accept the opinion and would still like to follow me, then it should followed not confidential, but I’ll go to the mosque, then who intend to inaugurate me then follow”. Go Ali to the mosque and the people followed him.
In the Tarikh al-Yaqubi said: ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib Caliph Uthman replace … and he dibaiat by Talha, Zubayr, The Muhajireen and Ansar. While those who first allegiance and shook his hand is Talha bin Ubaidillah Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidzy mentakhrij hadith from Safinah ra., He said: I heard the Messenger of Allah. said:
Caliphate lasted for 30 years and after that is kerajaan. Kingdom Says: Let us count the Khilafah of Abu Bakrl asted 2 years, the Caliphate Umar 10 year’s old, Uthman Khilafah 12 years old and Ali Caliphate 6 years.
Ali worked hard in the caliph to restore stability in the human body after the previous Ibnu Saba dan Sabaiyahnya and conspiracy and provocation launched to destroy Islam from within. When Ali was on this time, his Ibn Sabadan Sabaiyah went back to launch their conspiracy and treason, which make things more complicated. It is reported that Ali eventually burn a lot of followers and also Ibn Sabadan Sabaiyah was exiled to al-Madain.
• Full of wisdom, is the obvious nature. He’ll be careful though in what he sees right, and chose not to tell them plainly, if it will bring harm to the people. He put the case in the right place.
• He was gentle, so many people that contemporary are saw he was joking, but it is a part of the perfection of nature to see what’s behind something, and look to perfection. He wants to be an imperfect reality turned into a straight and improved to the perfection
• He is famous eloquence. So that his words contain the values of Arab literature and a clear height. Both in creating proverbs and wisdom. He also quoted from the editor of the Qur’an, and hadith of the Prophet, thus adding to the bright and the smell of his words. This makes himself at the top of fluency Arabic language and literature.
Imam Ali KW is not soft, but he was more interested in unity of the ummah. Because the people who participate in the session at that time was in the stronghold of a mutual disagreement. So he chose to get out of the worst condition to poor condition. He has confirmed it, and gave warning to his followers. But in fact the people around him lost in endless debates and endless conflict. So that events happened that sad.
The compassion in his heart was the one who encouraged her to be soft and not hard. This he did because he wanted to save others, so he was willing to put himself in danger. He was willing to redeem the lives of people whom he loved, or group of people who believe, or some people who were targeted by the enemy, with his life. And he being so soft, and asked for a better way. In order to defeat the jealousy of love, love beat violence, and alienate the people he loved from destruction. People who read what he pleaded to Awwam bin Zubair and Talha bin Abdullah, will undoubtedly find that they have menghianatinya, and fight it. Then she began to criticize them, with a loving criticism against those who he loved. He reminded them of the promises that they never say, and together they are in upholding the sentence of God Almighty. What did he do during clashes that occurred between him and Ayesha is evidence of heights nature of love, the glory of his feelings, and trying hard to put out the signs of lesser ambition, that is not worthy of a great man like himself, also for a kind of noble character A’ishah Therefore, he tried to negotiate that can only be done by a great man like himself, namely the noble mujahideen.
Ali bin Abi Thalib has laid in disorder conditions after Ustman bin Affan has died who has been killed by rebellion. From all caliph government, Ali bin Abi Thalib’s government has been faced with the establishing of rebellion. Ali has concern in domestic problems rather than international problems because in his era Muslims was divided into several groups. This is caused by demand from some people for settle on Ustman bin Affan case, they want this problem was finished quickly.
This problem was caused some war happen among Muslims itself. Jamal war which is happens between Ali and ‘Aisyah cannot be avoided. Other war has been happen between Ali and Mu’awiyah which is called Shiffin war because the demand of Ustman murdered.
Practice of diplomacy was done by Ali bin Abi Thalib before he made decision for war although he may have enough military power for do it. In Mu’awiyah cases, Ali was sent his diplomat with letter from him to settle this problem with negotiation but when this way failure to get consensus Ali will use military power. Although he used military power, he has some rules toward this case. He confirm his troops that do not take action before they was attacked by opposite, avoid the civilians, women and Childs and not destructive.
From above simple illustrate, it show that Ali bin Abi Thalib avoid war as dispute settlement toward problem that rise in his government era. At first time he used diplomat and negotiation way for settle the dispute and will continue to war when there are no peaceful ways toward that case.
One sample that has practiced by Ali bin abi Thalib is about dispute settlement with Mu’awiyah. He has been sent negotiator to Mu’awiyah toward this case but he has failed to get consensus with Mu’awiyah. He tried other with sent letter but it has no agreement between them. It is finally ended by tahkim event which is shellacking in Ali’s side.
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